WingMakers Forum

The Maya
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Author:  starduster [ Sun Aug 14, 2005 4:45 pm ]
Post subject: 

2012 Unlimited philosophy

1. Humanity and Planet Earth are currently going through a huge change or shift in consciousness and reality perception.

2. The Mayan civilization of Central America was and is the most advanced in relation to time-science knowledge. Their main calendar is the most accurate on the planet. It has never erred. They actually have 22 calendars in total, covering the many timing cycles in the Universe and Solar System. Some of these calendars are yet to be revealed.

3. The Mayan fifth world finished in 1987. The sixth world starts in 2012. So we are currently "between worlds". This time is called the "Apocalypse" or revealing. This means the real truth will be revealed. It is also the time for us to work through "our stuff" individually and collectively.

4. The Mayan sixth world is actually blank. This means it is up to us, as co-creators, to start creating the new world and civilization we want now.

5. The Mayans also say that by 2012-
- we will have gone beyond technology as we know it.
- we will have gone beyond time and money.
- we will have entered the fifth dimension after passing through the fourth dimension
- Planet Earth and the Solar System will come into galactic synchronization with the rest of the Universe.
- Our DNA will be "upgraded" (or reprogrammed) from the centre of our galaxy. (Hunab Ku)
"Everbody on this planet is mutating. Some are more conscious of it than others. But everyone is doing it" - Extraterrestrial Earth Mission.

6. In 2012 the plane of our Solar System will line up exactly with the plane of our Galaxy, the Milky Way. This cycle has taken 26,000 years to complete. Virgil Armstrong also says that two other galaxies will line up with ours at the same time. A cosmic event!

7. Time is actually speeding up (or collapsing). For thousands of years the Schumann Resonance or pulse (heartbeat) of Earth has been 7.83 cycles per second, The military have used this as a very reliable reference. However, since 1980 this resonance has been slowly rising. It is now over 12 cycles per second! This mean there is the equalivant of less than 16 hours per day instead of the old 24 hours. Another intrepetation is - we, or rather Consciousness have been down this same road seven times before over the last 16 billion years. Each of these cycles of Creation runs 20 times faster than the last one. The same amount of Creation is paced 20 times tighter. This is why time seems to be going so fast. It is not "time" but Creation itself that is accelerating.

8. During the Apocalypse or the time "between worlds" many people will be going through many personal changes. The changes will be many and varied. It is all part of what we came here to learn or experience. Examples of change could be- relationships coming to an end, change of residence or location, change of job or work, shift in attitude or thinking etc.

9. Remember, in any given moment we are making small and large decisions. Each decision is based on LOVE or FEAR. Choose love, follow your intuition, not intellect and follow your passion or "burning inner desire." Go with the flow.

10. Thought forms are very important and affect our everyday life. We create our reality with thought forms. If we think negative thoughts of others this is what we attract. If we think positive thoughts we will attract positive people and events. So be aware of your thoughts and eliminate the unnecessary negative or judgemental ones.

11. Be aware that most of the media is controlled by just a few. Use discernment! Look for the hidden agendas. Why is this information being presented to you? What is "their" real agenda? Is it a case of problem­reaction­solution? Do "they" create a problem so that "we" react and ask for a fix, then "they" offer their solution? The "solution is what "they" really wanted in the first place.

12. Remember almost nothing happens by accident. Almost all "events" are planned by some agency or other. Despite this, it is a very exciting time to be alive!

Author:  starduster [ Wed Sep 07, 2005 4:28 pm ]
Post subject: 

Ever heard of MAYAONICS (where science and spirituality meet)
Carl Johan Calleman

A new phase in the evolution of the Cosmic Time Plan will soon open up; the Fourth DAY of the Galactic Underworld. This phase will begin on the Gregorian date December 4, 2004 and will last until Nov 28, 2005. This Fourth DAY is a pulse of LIGHT that will be dominating us for a period of 360 days, a period that among the Maya is called a tun, a prophetic “year” characterized by a specific spiritual energy. It represents a pulse of forward energy, of creative LIGHT, and so to use a symbolic term we may call this whole period a DAY. This coming DAY is the Fourth DAY of the Underworld that is currently affecting us the most, the Galactic Underworld, which started January 5, 1999 and will be completed on October 28, 2011 (see Figure on the next page). It is in this Fourth DAY that the transformation of consciousness in a very real sense is beginning. It will soon become evident that the Galactic Underworld propels an irreversible process that will affect the whole planet and all aspects of life ... Phase.html

Author:  robert_g [ Thu Sep 08, 2005 7:21 am ]
Post subject: 

duster --
have you ever asked how much of the history you were taught in school was plain off the mark? I've wondered about that.
some of these ancient folks might have been advanced.
for example the bering strait theory, where all the mesoamericans came over a land bridge from asia. poopypoop. they were probably there long before. one reading of it says there were maybe 5 major tribes in n and s america. and many of them moved north & etc.
and across the pacific. (mu?) & the olmecs came from africa.
was mu for real? I get the feeling it may have been.
(I guess they also call it lemuria. so why 2 names?) lol


[Edited on 8-9-2005 by robert_g]

Author:  starduster [ Wed Oct 05, 2005 10:39 am ]
Post subject: 

spot on...Robert ;)

here is more about the mayan prophesies...from another source:

by Rudolph C. Rser, Ph.D.

Come the Fifth Sun:
Grandmother and Grandfather Nations Prepare
for the Next Great Cycle

The Gregorian calendar is used by many peoples in the world. It became a part of the dominant ethos in only the last 90 years though it was fashioned by Roman Catholic Pope Gregory XIII in 1525. The world has many calendars that measure time and mark celestial events. The Hindus, the Han in China and the Egyptians all have calendars that predated the Julian Christian Calendar that was first used by the Romans 2000 years ago. The Mayans are recognized to have formalized a calendar about 2,250 years ago with a unique attribute: The calendar marks the relationship between the cosmos, the earth and human beings measuring the great cycles nearly twenty-thousand years earlier and an infinite amount of time into the future. Unlike the Christian Calendar that is based on a presumed date of birth for a single person and the Islamic Calendar that also points to the birth of a single person for a beginning date, the Mayan Calendar points to the beginning of a great celestial cycle when the earth, the sun and the center of the Milky Way Galaxy come into alignment. The Maya recognize the center of the galaxy as the birthplace of the people.

The Maya´s measurement of the Great Cycle describes the birth and rebirth of the sun as it takes 5,125 years to complete its celestial arc in space to once again align with the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. On January 1, 1994 of the Gregorian Calendar DayKeepers responsible for comprehending the cycles of time measured in the Mayan calendars stepped from their caves in the Mayan Jungles and spoke to the world, the Mexican Government and to the Mayan people. They stepped forward to notify the world of the coming of the new sun and the need to enter into a process of renewal. They pointed to the need for Mexican authorities to recognize the right of self-determination and land rights of the Mayan peoples in all of Mexico, but particularly in the state of Chiapas. They warned the authorities that they would suffer from serious problems if they failed to pay attention to the words of the DayKeepers.

Marking the end of the Fourth Sun the DayKeepers pointed to the Winter Solstice of the Gregorian Calendar in 2012 or the Mayan Calendars date of That date is also the day on which the Fifth Sun will begin.

In the Gregorian Calendar month of December 1999 on the Solstice the Sun will begin a thirteen year phase during which it will progressively move each year closer and closer to the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. It will also take thirteen years from that point to move through a phase away from the center. The solar/galactic alignment constitutes a 26 year period that defines the new era of the Fifth Sun.

The Fourth Sun beginning 5,112 years ago marked the beginning of the era of the Fourth World peoples, the era during which peoples experiment with the establishment of large cities, and farming. Fourth World peoples have demonstrated their knowledge of appropriate living in the forests, jungles, deserts, arctic regions, islands and virtually everywhere in the world. These are Fourth World peoples-the grandmother and grandfather nations from which all other human beings have been born. These ancient peoples hold very old knowledge of the era and all of the previous eras. Fourth World peoples are the wild seed of humanity holding the knowledge of the coming Fifth Sun.

In the Longhouse we will begin celebrating the ending of the Fourth Sun and the coming of the Fifth Sun in recognition of our collective connection to the great cycles of the living universe. The Solstice this winter is the beginning of this great process which transforms all of existence. Change embraces new and unexpected things and combines them with some of the things that came before. We recognize things from the past because some of them continue with us through time and space. We are also mystified by things around us because they never occurred before. The expected and unexpected play a powerful part in our identity and give us the sensation of creativity. Knowing and comprehending the great cycle and the coming of the Fifth Sun is an essential knowledge for Fourth World peoples. The DayKeepers have offered their insights for all to know, for all to understand. Look to the grandmother and grandfather nations who in their maturity willingly share knowledge. The ones who live rightly and renew over the next twenty-six years will become the Fifth World peoples.

Author:  starduster [ Wed Oct 05, 2005 10:47 am ]
Post subject: 

back ground....

The Fourth DAY
A new phase in the evolution of the Cosmic Time Plan will soon open up; the Fourth DAY of the Galactic Underworld. This phase will begin on the Gregorian date December 4, 2004 and will last until Nov 28, 2005. This Fourth DAY is a pulse of LIGHT that will be dominating us for a period of 360 days, a period that among the Maya is called a tun, a prophetic “year” characterized by a specific spiritual energy. It represents a pulse of forward energy, of creative LIGHT, and so to use a symbolic term we may call this whole period a DAY. This coming DAY is the Fourth DAY of the Underworld that is currently affecting us the most, the Galactic Underworld, which started January 5, 1999 and will be completed on October 28, 2011 (see Figure on the next page). It is in this Fourth DAY that the transformation of consciousness in a very real sense is beginning. It will soon become evident that the Galactic Underworld propels an irreversible process that will affect the whole planet and all aspects of life.

In this context, the term Underworld, borrowed from Maya-Aztec Cosmology, simply means “Level of Evolution of Consciousness”. Such an Underworld is developed according to the Cosmic Time Plan in a series of Seven pulses of LIGHT, Seven DAYS. To understand the prophetic Mayan calendar system it is imperative to realize that new levels of consciousness, or Underworlds, are developed through such series of similar pulses, series of DAYS. During these DAYS, new consciousness fields, with an origin in the Cosmic World Tree, are relayed by the inner core of the Earth and determine the creativity and perception of the human beings. Thus, the prophetic Mayan calendar system is a codification of a divine plan for the evolution of consciousness and unlike all other calendars in this world it is not astronomically based. In fact, it goes back to a time when our solar system did not even exist – to the Big Bang – and encompasses a very wide perspective of time. Recently, also professional astronomers ( have concluded that the Mayan calendar cannot possibly be based on precession or any other astronomical cycle. Today we thus have every reason to consider what for long has been unthinkable, namely that we have access to a calendar that is not based on the physical reality, but instead expresses the divine time plan that delineates the very purpose and direction of life on Earth. In the larger context of Underworlds the human species is now in the midst of the Eighth Underworld, the Galactic, with only one higher level of evolution of consciousness to go, the Universal. If we are to align ourselves with this evolution we should not look to the night sky to find the rhythm of the cosmic time plan. We should listen inside to the changing energies of time mediated by the Earth, the Global Brain, itself.

Author:  starduster [ Mon Aug 18, 2008 1:20 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

The Mayan Calendar and the Transformation of Consciousness ... t=lf&hl=en

thought I would also share a mayan perspective of the Full Moon we are experiencing :

16-17 August - Lunar Eclipse/Aquarius -24° Aquarius 21- 7:45 pm NZ Time

A powerful eclipse in part due to a trine to Pluto and exact conjunction in Chiron...heralds a time for deep shamanic healing and major changes personally and collectively.

A 90 degree angle to Pluto at the time of the full moon lunar eclipse on August 16 brings about a really explosive type of energy. Pluto being the transformer in the sign of Sagittarius, (Sagittarius is a sign ruling or influencing finance, education, law), is retrograde thru to the end of November. Pluto in Sagittarius has and will be continuing to influence economics and the present monetary system thru to the end of November, when Pluto will then move into Capricorn where it will remain for several years. Capricorn rules structures/systems, big business and governments, etc. These systems will more outwardly begin to disintegrate to be transformed into a more integral and humane system. Capricorn often gets a reputation for being a bit into control, however; with Pluto in that sign we will see this influence of control beginning to crumble.

Fears and a feeling of being a bit lost may surface during the weeks leading up to the eclipse; and this offers you the opportunity to get in touch with more of who you really are at your core, so you can open more to love and honour yourself in more direct ways through your life choices.

After the eclipse however; you are supported to experience increasing clarity of mind even as troubling emotions may have you stewing for a time so consider exploring them with a willingness to feel them so they can inform you directly, then you will get to the gold underlying them.

This eclipse is very likely to evoke very potent key memories and emotions related to past events in support of resolving major life themes for this lifetime. In support of this transformative time active dreaming is also greatly enhanced.

For some, you could come into contact with either very surprising or even quite shocking news or new information, all as a catalyst to assist you to get to the truth, to help you to put important pieces of your jigsaw together, so you can move more fully into peace with regards to your past, loving acceptance of the present, and therefore greater receptivity to new life as it takes you into the future.

Take good care of yourself during this potent shift time! ... /astro.htm

Author:  starduster [ Tue Aug 19, 2008 11:44 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

I am bumping this topic, to give you the opportunity to be aware that the energy you are experiencing can be quite disruptive, if you are not grounded...or coherent, you may just begin to fly to pieces.

There is an even stronger wave of energy coming in on the 23rd of this month that may be even more disruptive that you should be aware of...along with the synchronization of events being played out.

The eclipse of August 16 ushered in the energies of Virgo... energy fully opens on August 23rd.
WE are now feeling the heaviness of the energies ahead (Take time to sleep, rest and replenish. ).
WE have come through a calm center as much change is unexpected for most.
Decisions postponed in the past now come to full fruition.
Anything that has been neglected in the past now resurfaces to be addressed... including health issues
Relocations are highlighted now... creating our life purpose -know that WE are part of the transition that faces every soul on planet earth.
Emotionally WE center and choose the lighted pathway a knowing in this moment WE are loved~cherished~nurtured WE are never alone... All is in the plan...WE are right on schedule individually and collectively.

Masses are now suddenly awakening..."fully awake" with total understanding and knowing of their purpose.
WE welcome them into our wings and nurture with universal love and oneness.

Author:  starduster [ Mon Aug 25, 2008 2:33 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

new film on 2012 ... consolidates all the researchers, just posted Aug 20 2008 ... in 13 parts

this will help you heal from "wake up call" is also a wake up call to your consciousness... of why "they" don't want you to evolve...why they keep us saturated in fear, stress and ignorance... but they can not stop this, they are loosing more power by the nanosecond and if we want to, we can evolve completely out of their reach. ... =en&emb=0#

2012 The Online Movie is one of the most comprehensive 2012 videos on the net, encompassing the Mayan calendar, crop circles, DNA upgrade, the photon belt, galactic alignment, astronomy, crop circles, prophecy and much more.

Featuring Alex Ansary, Gregg Braden, Dannion Brinkley, Kerry Cassidy, Alex Collier, David Flynn, Richard Hoagland, John Major Jenkins, Barbara Marciniak, Terrence McKenna, Daniel Pinchbeck, Bill Ryan, Geoff Stray, Jay Weidner and David Wilcock.

Author:  starduster [ Wed Aug 27, 2008 2:37 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

Divers and scientists probe Yucatán sinkholes, sacred to the Maya, where human sacrifices ensured cosmic order.


On the third day it was my turn to test God's vigilance, letting the metal chair plop me down into the cool pond like a piece of bait. Treading water, I adjusted my eyes to the moonlight of the cave. The cenote was shaped like an old Chianti bottle—a narrow neck leading to a wide chamber about 90 feet (30 meters) across and 120 feet (40 meters) deep. The bottle was half full, the water surface 35 feet (11 meters) below the domed ceiling. Stalactites dripped, and the roots of trees were spread on the walls in delicate dark webbing. Spanish records tell how live victims were thrown into the sacred cenote at Chichén Itzá, a major Maya city, on the premise that, as sacrifices to the gods, they would not die—even though they were never seen again. I scanned the slick limestone walls, and my heart pounded, feeling their terror.

Sinking deeper into the white noise of pressure, I bottomed out at 50 feet (20 meters) and glided across piles of shattered limestone. A side cave, shaped like a sock, spun down and off to the west. Resting in the sand was a mahogany-hued skeleton, already tagged, the eye orbits of its skull bleak with expectations of eternity.

A few days later the National Instutute of Anthropology and History scientists brought him up. It was the first skeleton of its kind—with all its bones in their natural positions, undisturbed—ever found underwater in the Yucatán. He was a large man, perhaps 50 years old, well past the Maya life expectancy. "His health was bad," said Terrazas after examining the bones, "with arthritis so severe that he could barely flex his hands. He had terrible teeth problems—gingivitis—and he probably had a very hard time chewing."

He was lying face up on the sand. Was it an accident? "No," said Terrazas. "There are nine skeletons down there [eight are partial]. Maybe one is there from an accident, but not nine."

full story here ... ltext.html

Author:  starduster [ Thu Aug 28, 2008 2:34 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya


In an article published in DNA Monthly entitled "The Real Meaning of the Mayan Calendar," Anthony Goodman writes, "Unlike other calendars, [the Mayan calendar as decoded by Calleman] does not time astronomical bodies. It is purely a calendar, a timeline, of the Evolution of Consciousness. The calendar comprises nine discreet cycles of creation, nested within each other, all ending on a particular date. That date, believed by Calleman to be October 28, 2011, as opposed to the more well-known date of December 21, 2012, is when this phase of conscious evolution ends and a transformation in consciousness takes place." Courtesy of Anthony Goodman. All Rights Reserved.

Reading between the lines, the experienced student of the Mayan calendar will hear in Calleman's words a critique of interpretations of the Mayan calendar as purely a measurement of revolving astronomical cycles--the type of reading given to the Mayan calendar by John Major Jenkins, for example. Instead, Calleman's Mayan calendar is, first and foremost, a map of the evolution of consciousness. Driving home his point, Calleman elaborates that "endlessly repeated identical astronomical cycles could never explain the evolution of consciousness." On the subject of embracing the Mayan calendar as a spiritual map with a clearly defined teleological focus, Calleman writes, "If today we are to embrace a worldview in which consciousness is more important than matter, we … need to base our timekeeping on the nonphysical, invisible reality [that gives rise to reality] rather than on the physical."

Although to the best of my knowledge Calleman is not consciously drawing on The Ra Material, his interpretation of the Mayan calendar is exceedingly consistent on numerous points with Ra's cosmology--and indeed, constitutes a further validation of the latter (in which the "body [the physical] is a creature of the mind"). Certainly, Calleman's central theme, like Ra's, is unity. Ra explicitly describes how our movement into the next density will have the effect of removing the veil in the mind that currently separates human from divine consciousness. In parallel fashion, Calleman writes of the end of the Mayan calendar, "No longer will there be an experience of separation between human beings and God. If we do not experience ourselves as gods, we will, at the very least, experience ourselves fully as the manifestations of the Divine that we truly are."

Author:  starduster [ Sun Sep 07, 2008 1:33 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

update on work above being done in underwater caves:

Oldest Skeleton in Americas Found in Underwater Cave?
Eliza Barclay
for National Geographic News
September 3, 2008

Deep inside an underwater cave in Mexico, archaeologists may have discovered the oldest human skeleton ever found in the Americas.

Dubbed Eva de Naharon, or Eve of Naharon, the female skeleton has been dated at 13,600 years old. If that age is accurate, the skeleton—along with three others found in underwater caves along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula—could provide new clues to how the Americas were first populated.

Old skeleton in underwater cave in Mexico - photo


The remains have been excavated over the past four years near the town of Tulum, about 80 miles southwest of Cancún, by a team of scientists led by Arturo González, director of the Desert Museum in Saltillo, Mexico (see map of Mexico).

"We don't now how [the people whose remains were found in the caves] arrived and whether they came from the Atlantic, the jungle, or inside the continent," González said.

"But we believe these finds are the oldest yet to be found in the Americas and may influence our theories of how the first people arrived."

In addition to possibly altering the time line of human settlement in the Americas, the remains may cause experts to rethink where the first Americans came from, González added.

Clues from the skeletons' skulls hint that the people may not be of northern Asian descent, which would contradict the dominant theory of New World settlement. That theory holds that ancient humans first came to North America from northern Asia via a now submerged land bridge across the Bering Sea (see an interactive map of ancient human migration).

"The shape of the skulls has led us to believe that Eva and the others have more of an affinity with people from South Asia than North Asia," González explained.

Concepción Jiménez, director of physical anthropology at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History, has viewed the finds and says they may be Mexico's oldest and most important human remains to date.

"Eva de Naharon has the Paleo-Indian characteristics that make the date seem very plausible," Jiménez said.

more here

Author:  starduster [ Thu Oct 30, 2008 7:20 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya


in two weeks we will be coming out of the Fifth Night and begining the Sixth DAY - NOV 13, 08
One more great opportunity to WAKE UP and enjoy the LIGHT

Author:  Kimberlee [ Wed Nov 05, 2008 9:33 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

starduster wrote:

in two weeks we will be coming out of the Fifth Night and begining the Sixth DAY - NOV 13, 08
One more great opportunity to WAKE UP and enjoy the LIGHT

Thanks for the heads up! Funny that I woke up yesterday with a message that something big was going to happen in 8 days.

I'll have to check out the meaning of this connection.


Author:  oneness [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 12:28 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya


Here is a picture of the Solar clock the mayans built not so long ago in time

Here is a thread in Australia that has been recently edited to say

We would love to hear your research about 2012, the Mayan Calender, the 26,000 year cycle, the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th dimensions and it what it means to Earth and its creatures. Any information you could share relating to this chapter in humanities evolution will assist our in depth research regarding this planet and its beautiful creatures at this incredible time.

ImageImage ... php?t=1555

and it received an answer

Author:  ziearmo [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 3:26 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

Hey Jason, I've just started to read your posts and I'm drawn in my your energy, so thanks for that. It'll take me a while to re-read more carefully but one thing that keeps jumping out at me is the line 'a new earth had to be created'. Not sure if I get this especially as it's past tense. :?

Author:  oneness [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 4:07 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya


Author:  starduster [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 5:12 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya


well, I did a huge search to see if I couldn't find out more about the Fifth Day...and aside from some really lame-o utube vids, there was only this one thing... which starts out with the Fifth Night (for background)....which you may find it validates what Dr N was telling us in the 4th Interview...

The difficult Fifth NIGHT ruled by Tezcatlipoca

At this point I feel it may be in its place to make a jump forward to discuss what is likely to occur after the two pulses of LIGHT in DAY 4 and DAY 5. In the Fifth NIGHT, (November 18 2007 – November 12, 2008, ruled by the energy of Tezcatlipoca, the god of darkness), we will see the last desperate attempts of the West, and power hierarchies based on materialism everywhere, to remain in control and strengthen their power in some new very oppressive way.

If the international monetary system collapses in DAY 5 we may for instance come to see this replaced by a centralized Electronic control over everyone’s economic interactions (Not to mention control of whereabouts and other things). Except that I simply look upon it as a phase in a cosmic plan, this is the time period when many of the scenarios described by conspiracy theoreticians may come true. Regardless of the concrete forms it may take, this is when everything will be made to keep people in the fold.

In the same way as we, during the Fifth NIGHT of the Planetary Underworld (1932-52), saw an alliance between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union of Stalin we may well in the upcoming Fifth NIGHT come to see an alliance between the rulers of China and the United States – all in the interest of maintaining a hierarchically ruled world with a focus on material gains. And in the same way as the mentioned dictatorships of the Planetary Underworld enjoyed the overwhelming support of their subjects, we may well come to see a strong support by the subjects of the “Democracy” of the US and the “popular” regime of China as the Fifth NIGHT begins to rule in the Galactic Underworld.

Especially in the United States people are already on a massive scale DELUDED into thinking that they are Free. Those with knowledge of the changing energies of the Mayan calendar will NOT be as easy to manipulate by fear, since they are aware of the wave movement of history.

The Shift from Chaos to the Enlightened World

Following the Fifth NIGHT large groups of people will however in the Sixth DAY break away from hierarchical control and guided by their intuition find a path towards increased wholeness. This is when the hierarchies will really start to break down, probably largely in a chaotic way. Yet, this is exactly the kind of chaos that is needed for the Recreation of an Enlightened world.

Creativity is born out of chaos and if you think more deeply about it you realize that there is no linear way from today’s world (2004) to the Enlightened (2011). Instead the Enlightened world can only emerge out of a series of transformative pulses, including periods of destruction, such as the Fifth NIGHT

Also a mention of it found a couple of minutes into the Exopolitics radio broadcast for this week

Author:  oneness [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 6:58 am ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya


I love and admire your work to bring the darkness onto yourself. You are highly admired and your presence is known. The secrets and trouble you bring with you all are highly playful for in truth they are made of the sweetest love in all of creation. It seems to me you know exactly what you are doing and exactly who you are becoming in timelessness

Author:  starduster [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 12:54 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

yeah that was right on topic too :roll:


Author:  Kimberlee [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 2:26 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

oneness wrote:

This sub-photonic realm that we exist in is highly fun and we know who we are and always will be creators of love light and sound

Underneath the sub-photonic realm of light is a Heart that sends out a vibration eminating from its deepest quarters that leads to the creation of sub-atomic and then atomic particles that are wave states inside and are not really solid as such.The quantum presence that is us is having a very splendid time at present as it knows who you are becoming because it currently sees itself through you from the holographic sub-photonic then photonic then sub-atomic then atomic that consists of wave states that are not really solid because we look into the atoms and see they are wave states created by us for us to have fun with. These atoms that are created into physicality have a purpose. A purpose to create particles of itself being the big octopus it is and may become and this is why another earth had to be created. To give each of you the choice to be ridden as waves of Love Light and Sound on this earth as she ascends into higher dimensional realities. This conversation has just been created now in time space by the loving Heart I call my friend

How interesting that I had a dream this morning about a newly built bridge that I was walking on. It wasn't open yet, and it was underground so it seemed no one knew about it. It was symbolic of the bridge that connects our hearts to the ONE HEART that we are part and parcel of. This bridge connects Heaven onto Earth. As we connect in that space with what you call your friend (I love it by the way) we are living Heaven on Earth. When we share this space with others, we are extending our hearts hand to our brothers and sisters and inviting them to come play in the Heaven on Earth HeartSpace. This is what Jesus was teaching us. If I am You and You are me, then we are We. Weeeee. Let's have some fun with this space, living in the heart!!!

By the way, that picture with the star in the middle really played with my eyes. For one, I am a StarSeed, so when any star symbol shows up, it has meaning. Then the area around the star was moving both clockwise and counterclockwise. Freaky cool.


Author:  starduster [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 4:06 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

the followiing article is an attempt to bring us back on topic...thank you for your focus on the MAYAN.

Maya civilization Image

The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Preclassic period, many of these reached their apogee of development during the Classic period (c. 250 CE to 900 CE), and continued throughout the Postclassic period until the arrival of the Spanish. At its peak, it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world.

The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region. Advances such as writing, epigraphy, and the calendar did not originate with the Maya; however, their civilization fully developed them. Maya influence can be detected as far as central Mexico, more than 1000 km (625 miles) from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to result from trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. The Maya peoples never disappeared, neither at the time of the Classic period decline nor with the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores and the subsequent Spanish colonization of the Americas. Today, the Maya and their descendants form sizable populations throughout the Maya area and maintain a distinctive set of traditions and beliefs that are the result of the merger of pre-Columbian and post-Conquest ideologies (and structured by the almost total adoption of Roman Catholicism). Many different Mayan languages continue to be spoken as primary languages today; the Rabinal Achí, a play written in the Achi' language, was declared a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2005.


The geographic extent of the Maya civilization, known as the Maya area, extended throughout the southern Mexican states of Chiapas, Tabasco, and the Yucatán Peninsula states of Quintana Roo, Campeche and Yucatán. The Maya area also extended throughout the northern Central American region, including the present-day nations of Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and western Honduras.

As the largest sub-region in Mesoamerica, it encompassed a vast and varied landscape, from the mountainous regions of the Sierra Madre to the semi-arid plains of northern Yucatán. Climate in the Maya region can vary tremendously, as the low-lying areas are particularly susceptible to the hurricanes and tropical storms that frequent the Caribbean.

The Maya area is generally divided into three loosely defined zones: the southern Maya highlands, the southern (or central) Maya lowlands, and the northern Maya lowlands. The southern Maya highlands include all of elevated terrain in Guatemala and the Chiapas highlands. The southern lowlands lie just north of the highlands, and incorporate the Petén of the Mexican states of Campeche and Quintana Roo and northern Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador. The northern lowlands cover the remainder of the Yucatán Peninsula, including the Puuc hills.[1]



While the Maya area was initially inhabited around the 10th millennium BCE, the first clearly “Maya” settlements were established in approximately 1800 BCE in Soconusco region of the Pacific Coast. This point in time, known as the Early Preclassic,[2] was characterized by sedentary communities and the introduction of pottery and fired clay figurines.[3]

Archaeological evidence suggests the construction of ceremonial architecture in Maya area by approximately 1000 BCE. The earliest configurations of such architecture consist of simple burial mounds, which would be the precursors to the stepped pyramids subsequently erected in the Late Preclassic. Prominent Middle and Late Preclassic settlement zones are located in the southern Maya lowlands, specifically in the Mirador and Petén Basins. Important sites in the southern Maya lowlands include Nakbe, El Mirador, Cival, and San Bartolo. In the Guatemalan Highlands Kaminal Juyú emerges around 800 BCE. For many centuries it controlled the Jade and Obsidian sources for the Petén and Pacific Lowlands. The important early sites of Izapa, Takalik Abaj and Chocolá at around 600 BCE were the main producers of Cacao. Mid-sized Maya communities also began to develop in the northern Maya lowlands during the Middle and Late Preclassic, though these lacked the size, scale, and influence of the large centers of the southern lowlands. Two important Preclassic northern sites include Komchen and Dzibilchaltun.

There is some disagreement about the boundaries which differentiate the physical and cultural extent of the early Maya and neighboring Preclassic Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec culture of the Tabasco lowlands and the Mixe-Zoque– and Zapotec–speaking peoples of Chiapas and southern Oaxaca, respectively. Many of the earliest significant inscriptions and buildings appeared in this overlapping zone, and evidence suggests that these cultures and the formative Maya influenced one another.[4] Takalik Abaj, in the Pacific slopes of Guatemala, is the only site where Olmec and then Maya features have been found.

The ruins of Palenque.

The Classic period (c. 250 CE–900 CE) witnessed the peak of large-scale construction and urbanism, the recording of monumental inscriptions, and a period of significant intellectual and artistic development, particularly in the southern lowland regions.[5] They developed an agriculturally intensive, city-centered empire consisting of numerous independent city-states. This includes the well-known cities of Tikal, Palenque, Copán and Calakmul, but also the lesser known Dos Pilas, Uaxactun, Altun Ha, and Bonampak, among others. The Early Classic settlement distribution in the northern Maya lowlands is not as clearly known as the southern zone, but does include a number of population centers, such as Oxkintok, Chunchucmil, and the early occupation of Uxmal.

The most notable monuments are the stepped pyramids they built in their religious centers and the accompanying palaces of their rulers. The palace at Cancuen is the largest in the Maya area, though the site, interestingly, lacks pyramids. Other important archaeological remains include the carved stone slabs usually called stelae (the Maya called them tetun, or "tree-stones"), which depict rulers along with hieroglyphic texts describing their genealogy, military victories, and other accomplishments.[6]

The Maya participated in long distance trade with many of the other Mesoamerican cultures, including Teotihuacan, the Zapotec and other groups in central and gulf-coast Mexico, as well as with more distant, non-Mesoamerican groups. For example the Tainos in the caribbean, also archaeologists found gold from Panama in the Sacred Cenote of Chichen Itza.[7] Important trade goods included cacao, salt, sea shells, jade and obsidian.

The Maya collapse

For reasons that are still debated, the Maya centers of the southern lowlands went into decline during the 8th and 9th centuries and were abandoned shortly thereafter. This decline was coupled with a cessation of monumental inscriptions and large-scale architectural construction.[8] Although there is no universally accepted theory to explain this “collapse,” current theories fall into two categories: non-ecological and ecological.

Non-ecological theories of Maya decline are divided into several subcategories, such as overpopulation, foreign invasion, peasant revolt, and the collapse of key trade routes. Ecological hypotheses include environmental disaster, epidemic disease, and climate change. There is evidence that the Maya population exceeded carrying capacity of the environment including exhaustion of agricultural potential and overhunting of megafauna.[9] Some scholars have recently theorized that an intense 200 year drought led to the collapse of Maya civilization.[10] The drought theory originated from research performed by physical scientists studying lake beds,[11] ancient pollen, and other data, not from the archaeological community.

Postclassic period

During the succeeding Postclassic period (from the 10th to the early 16th century), development in the northern centers persisted, characterized by an increasing diversity of external influences. The Maya cities of the northern lowlands in Yucatán continued to flourish for centuries more; some of the important sites in this era were Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Edzná, and Coba. After the decline of the ruling dynasties of Chichen and Uxmal, Mayapan ruled all of Yucatán until a revolt in 1450. (This city's name may be the source of the word "Maya", which had a more geographically restricted meaning in Yucatec and colonial Spanish and only grew to its current meaning in the 19th and 20th centuries). The area then degenerated into competing city-states until the Yucatán was conquered by the Spanish.

The Itza Maya, Ko'woj, and Yalain groups of Central Peten survived the "Classic Period Collapse" in small numbers and by 1250 reconstituted themselves to form competing city-states. The Itza maintained their capital at Tayasal (also known as Noh Petén), an archaeological site thought to underlay the modern city of Flores, Guatemala on Lake Petén Itzá. It ruled over an area extending across the Peten Lakes region, encompassing the community of Eckixil on Lake Quexil. The Ko'woj had their capital at Zacpeten. Postclassic Maya states also continued to survive in the southern highlands. One of the Maya kingdoms in this area, the K'iche', is responsible for the best-known Maya work of historiography and mythology, the Popol Vuh. Other highland kingdoms included the Mam based at Huehuetenango, the Kaqchikels based at Iximché and the Chuj, based at San Mateo Ixtatán. The Poqomam possibly had their capital at Mixco Viejo.

See also: K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj and Zaculeu

Colonial Period

Shortly after their first expeditions to the region, the Spanish initiated a number of attempts to subjugate the Maya and establish a colonial presence in the Maya territories of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Guatemalan highlands. This campaign, sometimes termed "The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán," would prove to be a lengthy and dangerous exercise for the conquistadores from the outset, and it would take some 170 years before the Spanish established substantive control over all Maya lands.

Unlike the Spanish campaigns against the Aztec and Inca Empires, there was no single Maya political center which once overthrown would hasten the end of collective resistance from the indigenous peoples. Instead, the conquistador forces needed to subdue the numerous independent Maya polities almost one by one, many of which kept up a fierce resistance. Most of the conquistadores were motivated by the prospects of the great wealth to be had from the seizure of precious metal resources such as gold or silver; however, the Maya lands themselves were poor in these resources. This would become another factor in forestalling Spanish designs of conquest, as they instead were initially attracted to the reports of great riches in central Mexico or Peru.

The last Maya states, the Itza polity of Tayasal and the Ko'woj city of Zacpeten, were continuously occupied and remained independent of the Spanish until late in the 17th century. They were finally subdued by the Spanish in 1697.

Political structures

A typical Classic Maya polity was a small hierarchical state (ajawil, ajawlel, or ajawlil) headed by a hereditary ruler known as an ajaw (later k’uhul ajaw).[12] Such kingdoms were usually no more than a capital city with its neighborhood and several lesser towns, although there were greater kingdoms, which controlled larger territories and extended patronage over smaller polities.

Each kingdom had a name that did not necessarily correspond to any locality within its territory. Its identity was that of a political unit associated with a particular ruling dynasty. For instance, the archaeological site of Naranjo was the capital of the kingdom of Saal. The land (chan ch’e’n) of the kingdom and its capital were called Wakab’nal or Maxam and were part of a larger geographical entity known as Huk Tsuk. Interestingly, despite constant warfare and eventual shifts in regional power, most kingdoms never disappeared from the political landscape until the collapse of the whole system in the 9th century CE. In this respect, Classic Maya kingdoms are highly similar to late Post Classic polities encountered by the Spaniards in Yucatán and Central Mexico: some polities could be subordinated to hegemonic rulers through conquests or dynastic unions and yet even then they persisted as distinct entities.

Mayanists have been increasingly accepting a "court paradigm" of Classic Maya societies which puts the emphasis on the centrality of the royal household and especially the person of the king. This approach focuses on Maya monumental spaces as the embodiment of the diverse activities of the royal household. It considers the role of places and spaces (including dwellings of royalty and nobles, throne rooms, temples, halls and plazas for public ceremonies) in establishing power and social hierarchy, and also in projecting aesthetic and moral values to define the wider social realm.

Spanish sources invariably describe even the largest Maya settlements as dispersed collections of dwellings grouped around the temples and palaces of the ruling dynasty and lesser nobles. None of the Classic Maya cities shows evidence of economic specialization and commerce of the scale of Mexican Tenochtitlan. Instead, Maya cities could be seen as enormous royal households, the locales of the administrative and ritual activities of the royal court. They were the places where privileged nobles could approach the holy ruler, where aesthetic values of the high culture were formulated and disseminated, where aesthetic items were consumed. They were the self-proclaimed centers and the sources of social, moral, and cosmic order. The fall of a royal court as in the well-documented cases of Piedras Negras or Copan would cause the inevitable "death" of the associated settlement.


Main article: Maya art Image
A stucco relief from Palenque depicting Upakal K'inich

Many consider Maya art of their Classic Era (c. 250CE to 900 CE) to be the most sophisticated and beautiful of the ancient New World. The carvings and the reliefs made of stucco at Palenque and the statuary of Copán are especially fine, showing a grace and accurate observation of the human form that reminded early archaeologists of Classical civilizations of the Old World, hence the name bestowed on this era. We have only hints of the advanced painting of the classic Maya; mostly what have survived are funerary pottery and other Maya ceramics, and a building at Bonampak holds ancient murals that survived by serendipity. A beautiful turquoise blue color that has survived through the centuries due to its unique chemical characteristics is known as Maya Blue or Azul maya, and it is present in Bonampak, Tajín Cacaxtla, Jaina, and even in some Colonial Convents. The use of Maya Blue survived until the 16th century when the technique was lost. Some Pre Classic murals have been recently discovered at San Bartolo, and are by far the finest in style and iconography, regarded as the Sistine Chapel of the Maya. With the decipherment of the Maya script it was discovered that the Maya were one of the few civilizations where artists attached their name to their work.


As unique and spectacular as Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years; yet, often the most dramatic and easily recognizable as Maya are the fantastic stepped pyramids from the Terminal Pre-classic period and beyond.

There are also cave sites that are important to the Maya. These cave sites include Jolja Cave, the cave site at Naj Tunich, the Candelaria Caves, and the Cave of the Witch. There are also cave-origin myths among the Maya. Some cave sites are still used by the modern Maya in the Chiapas highlands.

It has been suggested that, in conjunction to the Maya Long Count Calendar, every fifty-two years, or cycle, temples and pyramids were remodeled and rebuilt. It appears now that the rebuilding process was often instigated by a new ruler or for political matters, as opposed to matching the calendar cycle. However, the process of rebuilding on top of old structures is indeed a common one. Most notably, the North Acropolis at Tikal seems to be the sum total of 1,500 years of architectural modifications. In Tikal and Yaxhá, there are the Twin Pyramid complexes (7 in Tikal and 1 in Yaxhá, that commemorate the end of a Baktún

Through observation of the numerous consistent elements and stylistic distinctions, remnants of Maya architecture have become an important key to understanding the evolution of their ancient civilization.

Urban design

North Acropolis, Tikal, Guatemala

As Maya cities spread throughout the varied geography of Mesoamerica, site planning appears to have been minimal. Maya architecture tended to integrate a great degree of natural features, and their cities were built somewhat haphazardly as dictated by the topography of each independent location. For instance, some cities on the flat limestone plains of the northern Yucatán grew into great sprawling municipalities, while others built in the hills of Usumacinta utilized the natural loft of the topography to raise their towers and temples to impressive heights. However, some semblance of order, as required by any large city, still prevailed.

Classic Era Maya urban design could easily be described as the division of space by great monuments and causeways. Open public plazas were the gathering places for people and the focus of urban design, while interior space was entirely secondary. Only in the Late Post-Classic era did the great Maya cities develop into more fortress-like defensive structures that lacked, for the most part, the large and numerous plazas of the Classic.

At the onset of large-scale construction during the Classic Era, a predetermined axis was typically established in a cardinal direction. Depending on the location of natural resources such as fresh-water wells, or cenotes, the city grew by using sacbeob (causeways) to connect great plazas with the numerous platforms that created the sub-structure for nearly all Maya buildings. As more structures were added and existing structures re-built or remodeled, the great Maya cities seemed to take on an almost random identity that contrasted sharply with other great Mesoamerican cities such as Teotihuacan and its rigid grid-like construction.

Ballcourt at Tikal, Guatemala

At the heart of the Maya city were large plazas surrounded by the most important governmental and religious buildings, such as the royal acropolis, great pyramid temples and occasionally ball-courts. Though city layouts evolved as nature dictated, careful attention was placed on the directional orientation of temples and observatories so that they were constructed in accordance with Maya interpretation of the orbits of the heavenly bodies. Immediately outside of this ritual center were the structures of lesser nobles, smaller temples, and individual shrines; the less sacred and less important structures had a greater degree of privacy. Outside of the constantly evolving urban core were the less permanent and more modest homes of the common people.

Building materials

A surprising aspect of the great Maya structures is their lack of many advanced technologies seemingly necessary for such constructions. Lacking draft animals necessary for wheel-based modes of transportation, metal tools and even pulleys, Maya architecture required abundant manpower. Yet, beyond this enormous requirement, the remaining materials seem to have been readily available. All stone for Maya structures appears to have been taken from local quarries. They most often used limestone which remained pliable enough to be worked with stone tools while being quarried and only hardened once removed from its bed. In addition to the structural use of limestone, much of their mortar consisted of crushed, burnt and mixed limestone that mimicked the properties of cement and was used as widely for stucco finishing as it was for mortar. Later improvements in quarrying techniques reduced the necessity for this limestone-stucco as the stones began to fit quite perfectly, yet it remained a crucial element in some post and lintel roofs. In the case of the common Maya houses, wooden poles, adobe and thatch were the primary materials; however, instances of what appear to be common houses of limestone have been discovered as well. Also notable throughout Maya architecture is the corbel arch (also known as a "false arch"), whose limitations kept their structures generally weighty rather than airy.

Notable constructions

* Ceremonial platforms were commonly limestone platforms of typically less than four meters in height where public ceremonies and religious rites were performed. Constructed in the fashion of a typical foundation platform, these were often accented by carved figures, altars and perhaps tzompantli, a stake used to display the heads of victims or defeated Mesoamerican ballgame opponents.
* Palaces were large and often highly decorated, and usually sat close to the center of a city and housed the population's elite. Any exceedingly large royal palace, or one consisting of many chambers on different levels might be referred to as an acropolis. However, often these were one-story and consisted of many small chambers and typically at least one interior courtyard; these structures appear to take into account the needed functionality required of a residence, as well as the decoration required for their inhabitants stature.
* E-Groups are specific structural configurations present at a number of centers in the Maya area. These complexes are oriented and aligned according to specific astronomical events (primarily the sun’s solstices and equinoxes) and are thought to have been observatories. These structures are usually accompanied by iconographic reliefs that tie astronomical observation into general Maya mythology. The structural complex is named for Group E at Uaxactun, the first documented in Mesoamerica.
Temple of the Cross at Palenque. Note the intricate roof comb and corbeled arch.

* Pyramids and temples. Often the most important religious temples sat atop the towering Maya pyramids, presumably as the closest place to the heavens. While recent discoveries point toward the extensive use of pyramids as tombs, the temples themselves seem to rarely, if ever, contain burials. Residing atop the pyramids, some of over two-hundred feet, such as that at El Mirador, the temples were impressive and decorated structures themselves. Commonly topped with a roof comb, or superficial grandiose wall, these temples might have served as a type of propaganda. As they were often the only structure in a Maya city to exceed the height of the surrounding jungle, the roof combs atop the temples were often carved with representations of rulers that could be seen from vast distances.
* Observatories. The Maya were keen astronomers and had mapped out the phases of celestial objects, especially the Moon and Venus. Many temples have doorways and other features aligning to celestial events. Round temples, often dedicated to Kukulcan, are perhaps those most often described as "observatories" by modern ruin tour-guides, but there is no evidence that they were so used exclusively, and temple pyramids of other shapes may well have been used for observation as well.
* Ball courts. As an integral aspect of the Mesoamerican lifestyle, the courts for their ritual ball-game were constructed throughout the Maya realm and often on a grand scale. Enclosed on two sides by stepped ramps that led to ceremonial platforms or small temples, the ball court itself was of a capital "I" shape and could be found in all but the smallest of Maya cities.

Writing and literacy

Writing system

Maya script

The Maya writing system (often called hieroglyphs from a superficial resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian writing) was a combination of phonetic symbols and logograms. It is most often classified as a logographic or (more properly) a logosyllabic writing system, in which syllabic signs play a significant role. It is the only writing system of the Pre-Columbian New World which is known to completely represent the spoken language of its community. In total, the script has more than a thousand different glyphs, although a few are variations of the same sign or meaning, and many appear only rarely or are confined to particular localities. At any one time, no more than around 500 glyphs were in use, some 200 of which (including variations) had a phonetic or syllabic interpretation.

The earliest inscriptions in an identifiably-Maya script date back to 200–300 BC.[13] However, this is preceded by several other writing systems which had developed in Mesoamerica, most notably that of the Zapotecs, and (following the 2006 publication of research on the recently-discovered Cascajal Block), the Olmecs.[14] There is a pre-Maya writing known as "Epi-Olmec script" (post Olmec) which some researchers believe may represent a transitional script between Olmec and Maya writing, but the relationships between these remain unclear and the matter is unsettled. On January 5, 2006, National Geographic published the findings of Maya writings that could be as old as 400 BCE, suggesting that the Maya writing system is nearly as old as the oldest Mesoamerican writing known at that time, Zapotec.[15] In the succeeding centuries the Maya developed their script into a form which was far more complete and complex than any other that has yet been found in the Americas.

Since its inception, the Maya script was in use up to the arrival of the Europeans, peaking during the Maya Classical Period (c. 200 to 900). Although many Maya centers went into decline (or were completely abandoned) during or after this period, the skill and knowledge of Maya writing persisted amongst segments of the population, and the early Spanish conquistadors knew of individuals who could still read and write the script. Unfortunately, the Spanish displayed little interest in it, and as a result of the dire impacts the conquest had on Maya societies, the knowledge was subsequently lost, probably within only a few generations.

At a rough estimate, in excess of 10,000 individual texts have so far been recovered, mostly inscribed on stone monuments, lintels, stelae and ceramic pottery. The Maya also produced texts painted on a form of paper manufactured from processed tree-bark, in particular from several species of strangler fig trees such as Ficus cotinifolia and Ficus padifolia.[16] This paper, common throughout Mesoamerica and generally now known by its Nahuatl-language name amatl, was typically bound as a single continuous sheet that was folded into pages of equal width, concertina-style, to produce a codex (book) that could be written on both sides. Shortly after the conquest, all of the codices which could be found were ordered to be burnt and destroyed by zealous Spanish priests, notably Bishop Diego de Landa. Only three reasonably intact examples of Maya codices are known to have survived through to the present day. These are now known as the Madrid, Dresden, and Paris codices. A few pages survive from a fourth, the Grolier codex, whose authenticity is sometimes disputed, but mostly is held to be genuine. Further archaeology conducted at Maya sites often reveals other fragments, rectangular lumps of plaster and paint chips which formerly were codices; these tantalizing remains are, however, too severely damaged for any inscriptions to have survived, most of the organic material having decayed.

The decipherment and recovery of the now-lost knowledge of Maya writing has been a long and laborious process. Some elements were first deciphered in the late 19th and early 20th century, mostly the parts having to do with numbers, the Maya calendar, and astronomy. Major breakthroughs came starting in the 1950s to 1970s, and accelerated rapidly thereafter. By the end of the 20th century, scholars were able to read the majority of Maya texts to a large extent, and recent field work continues to further illuminate the content.

In reference to the few extant Maya writings, Michael D. Coe, a prominent linguist and epigrapher at Yale University stated:

"[O]ur knowledge of ancient Maya thought must represent only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, for of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their learning and ritual was recorded, only four have survived to modern times (as though all that posterity knew of ourselves were to be based upon three prayer books and 'Pilgrim's Progress')." (Michael D. Coe, The Maya, London: Thames and Hudson, 4th ed., 1987, p. 161.)

Most surviving pre-Columbian Maya writing is from stelae and other stone inscriptions from Maya sites, many of which were already abandoned before the Spanish arrived. The inscriptions on the stelae mainly record the dynasties and wars of the sites' rulers. Also of note are the inscriptions that reveal information about the lives of ancient Maya women. Much of the remainder of Maya hieroglyphics has been found on funeral pottery, most of which describes the afterlife.

Writing tools

Although the archaeological record does not provide examples, Maya art shows that writing was done with brushes made with animal hair and quills. Codex-style writing was usually done in black ink with red highlights, giving rise to the Aztec name for the Maya territory as the "land of red and black".

Scribes and Literacy

Scribes held a prominent position in Maya courts. Maya art often depicts rulers with trappings indicating they were scribes or at least able to write, such as having pen bundles in their headdresses. Additionally, many rulers have been found in conjunction with writing tools such as shell or clay inkpots.

Although the number of logograms and syllabic symbols required to fully write the language numbered in the hundreds, literacy was not necessarily widespread beyond the elite classes. Graffiti uncovered in various contexts, including on fired bricks, shows nonsensical attempts to imitate the writing system.

Maya numerals

In common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya used a base 20 (vigesimal) and base 5 numbering system (see Maya numerals). Also, the preclassic Maya and their neighbors independently developed the concept of zero by 36 BC. Inscriptions show them on occasion working with sums up to the hundreds of millions and dates so large it would take several lines just to represent it. They produced extremely accurate astronomical observations; their charts of the movements of the moon and planets are equal or superior to those of any other civilization working from naked eye observation.

In common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya had measured the length of the solar year to a high degree of accuracy, far more accurate than that used in Europe as the basis of the Gregorian Calendar. They did not use this figure for the length of year in their calendar, however. The calendar they used was crude, being based on a year length of exactly 365 days, which means that the calendar falls out of step with the seasons by one day every four years. By comparison, the Julian calendar, used in Europe from Roman times until about the 16th Century, accumulated an error of only one day every 128 years. The modern Gregorian calendar is even more accurate, accumulating only a day's error in approximately 3257 years.


Uniquely, there is some evidence to suggest the Maya appear to be the only pre-telescopic civilization to demonstrate knowledge of the Orion Nebula as being fuzzy, i.e. not a stellar pin-point. The information which supports this theory comes from a folk tale that deals with the Orion constellation's area of the sky. Their traditional hearths include in their middle a smudge of glowing fire that corresponds with the Orion Nebula. This is a significant clue to support the idea that the Maya detected a diffuse area of the sky contrary to the pin points of stars before the telescope was invented.[17] Many preclassic sites are oriented with the Pleiades and Eta Draconis, as seen in La Blanca, Ujuxte, Monte Alto, and Takalik Abaj.

The Maya were very interested in zenial passages, the time when the sun passes directly overhead. The latitude of most of their cities being below the Tropic of Cancer, these zenial passages would occur twice a year equidistant from the solstice. To represent this position of the sun overhead, the Maya had a god named Diving God.[citation needed]

The Dresden Codex contains the highest concentration of astronomical phenomena observations and calculations of any of the surviving texts (it appears that the data in this codex is primarily or exclusively of an astronomical nature). Examination and analysis of this codex reveals that Venus was the most important astronomical object to the Maya, even more important to them than the sun.


Chaac, the god of Rain and thunder

A jade mask. Its design metaphorically represents the Rain God Chaac, and the Creator God Kukulcán.

Like the Aztec and Inca who came to power later, the Maya believed in a cyclical nature of time. The rituals and ceremonies were very closely associated with celestial/terrestrial cycles which they observed and inscribed as separate calendars. The Maya priest had the job of interpreting these cycles and giving a prophetic outlook on the future or past based on the number relations of all their calendars. They also had to determine if the "heavens" or celestial matters were appropriate for performing certain religious ceremonies.

The Maya practiced human sacrifice. In some Maya rituals people were killed by having their arms and legs held while a priest cut the person's chest open and tore out his heart as an offering. This is depicted on ancient objects such as pictorial texts, known as codices (singular: codex). It is believed that children were often offered as sacrificial victims because they were believed to be pure.[18]

Much of the Maya religious tradition is still not understood by scholars, but it is known that the Maya, like most pre-modern societies, believed that the cosmos has three major planes, the underworld, the sky, and the earth.

The Maya underworld is reached through caves and ball courts.[citation needed] It was thought to be dominated by the aged Maya gods of death and putrefaction. The Sun and Itzamna, both aged gods, dominated the Maya idea of the sky. The night sky was considered a window showing all supernatural doings. The Maya configured constellations of gods and places, saw the unfolding of narratives in their seasonal movements, and believed that the intersection of all possible worlds was in the night sky.

Maya gods were not separate entities like Greek gods. The gods had affinities and aspects that caused them to merge with one another in ways that seem unbounded. There is a massive array of supernatural characters in the Maya religious tradition, only some of which recur with regularity. Good and evil traits are not permanent characteristics of Maya gods, nor is only "good" admirable. What is inappropriate during one season might come to pass in another since much of the Maya religious tradition is based on cycles and not permanence.

The life-cycle of maize lies at the heart of Maya belief. This philosophy is demonstrated on the Maya belief in the Maize God as a central religious figure. The Maya bodily ideal is also based on the form of the young Maize God, which is demonstrated in their artwork. The Maize God was also a model of courtly life for the Classical Maya.

It is sometimes believed[who?] that the multiple "gods" represented nothing more than a mathematical explanation of what they observed. Each god was literally just a number or an explanation of the effects observed by a combination of numbers from multiple calendars. Among the many types of Maya calendars which were maintained, the most important included a 260-day cycle, a 365-day cycle which approximated the solar year, a cycle which recorded lunation periods of the Moon, and a cycle which tracked the synodic period of Venus.

Philosophically, the Maya believed that knowing the past meant knowing the cyclical influences that create the present, and by knowing the influences of the present one can see the cyclical influences of the future.

Even in the 19th century, there was Maya influence in the local branch of Christianity followed in Chan Santa Cruz. Among the K'iche's in the western highlands of Guatemala these same nine months[clarify] are replicated, until this very day, in the training of the ajk'ij, the keeper of the 260-day-calendar called ch'olk'ij.


Maya diet and subsistence
See also: Agriculture in Mesoamerica

The ancient Maya had diverse and sophisticated methods of food production. It was formerly believed that shifting cultivation (swidden) agriculture provided most of their food but it is now thought that permanent raised fields, terracing, forest gardens, managed fallows, and wild harvesting were also crucial to supporting the large populations of the Classic period in some areas. Indeed, evidence of these different agricultural systems persist today: raised fields connected by canals can be seen on aerial photographs, contemporary rainforest species composition has significantly higher abundance of species of economic value to ancient Maya, and pollen records in lake sediments suggest that corn, manioc, sunflower seeds, cotton, and other crops have been cultivated in association with the deforestation in Mesoamerica since at least 2500 BC.

Contemporary Maya peoples still practice many of these traditional forms of agriculture, although they are dynamic systems and change with changing population pressures, cultures, economic systems, climate change, and the availability of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

Rediscovery of the Pre-Columbian Maya
False-color IKONOS image of a bajo (lowland area) in Guatemala. The forest covering sites of Maya ruins appears yellowish, as opposed to the red color of surrounding forest. The more sparsely vegetated bajos appear blue-green.
A Middle Preclassic palace structure at Nakbé, the Mirador Basin.

Spanish American Colonies were largely cut off from the outside world, and the ruins of the great ancient cities were little known except to locals. In 1839 United States traveler and writer John Lloyd Stephens, after hearing reports of lost ruins in the jungle, visited Copán, Palenque, and other sites with English architect and draftsman Frederick Catherwood. Their illustrated accounts of the ruins sparked strong interest in the region and the people, and they have once again regained their position as a vital link in Mesoamerican heritage.

However, in many locations, Maya ruins have been overgrown by the jungle, becoming dense enough to hide structures just a few meters away. To help find ruins, researchers have turned to satellite imagery. The best way to find them is to look at the visible and near-infrared spectra. Due to their limestone construction, the monuments affected the chemical makeup of the soil as they deteriorated. Some moisture-loving plants stayed away, while others were killed off or discolored. The effects of the limestone ruins are still apparent today to some satellite sensors.

Much of the contemporary rural population of the Yucatán Peninsula, Chiapas (both in Mexico), Guatemala and Belize is Maya by descent and primary language.

Author:  Kimberlee [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 4:42 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

I guess it would be fitting to include the upcoming trip I will be part of with the Mayan Elder Hunbatz Men.

The website of Hunbatz Men

I am the caretaker of the center skull Muxub. ... inidad.htm

This is the link to the itinerary. ... rinity.htm


Author:  starduster [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 8:54 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

Yes, Kimberlee...I was thinking of you when I posted that mask :D

thank you for sharing these links and being a part of the immortality of the Mayan civilization.

Author:  oneness [ Thu Nov 06, 2008 11:27 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

Wonderful information relating to the Mayan culture, so much to learn in this infinte training school residing on the 3rd dimension. I checked out those links Kimberlee, you must be so excited to be travelling to this destination in the near future. May your trip be one of magic, light and mystical nature linking you back to your divine origins. May all link to their divine, that part of themselves is now incredibly excited with the thought of you merging into eternity with it and becaue you are here and you have asked for this union your father in heaven knows your request and it will be given. Let us give each other Gentleness Nature Love Light and Sound as we embark on our quest to limitless realities. My Heart is yours, Our Heart is One and I thank you for your welcome. I am truly your Heart as you are mine


Author:  Kimberlee [ Fri Nov 07, 2008 12:15 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The Maya

oneness wrote:
Wonderful information relating to the Mayan culture, so much to learn in this infinte training school residing on the 3rd dimension. I checked out those links Kimberlee, you must be so excited to be travelling to this destination in the near future. May your trip be one of magic, light and mystical nature linking you back to your divine origins. May all link to their divine, that part of themselves is now incredibly excited with the thought of you merging into eternity with it and becaue you are here and you have asked for this union your father in heaven knows your request and it will be given. Let us give each other Gentleness Nature Love Light and Sound as we embark on our quest to limitless realities. My Heart is yours, Our Heart is One and I thank you for your welcome. I am truly your Heart as you are mine


I am really excited about this trip. One of the ladies that will be joining me is doing a documentary on the skulls. She has filmed at my house twice and picked up a ton of interviews at one of the skull gatherings back in September. She will be filming this event and we cannot wait to see what kind of interactions we might be having during this very important work. Once she has done the editing, perhaps we can post the video link here and you can experience the trip with us first hand. Thank you for joining hearts. The power of love is beyond comprehension.


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